Change happens. Maintenance, (planned or unplanned) outages, upgrades, etc. A change can be something small, such as tweaking a configuration value, or they can be large, such as replacing power units on hundreds racks across multiple datacenters. Changes come in all shapes, sizes, scopes, and risks, and require varying degrees of planning, scheduling, and cooperation.
Communication is an important piece of the change process, and good communication allows you to inform users and groups about pending changes and change impact. Good communication requires using the right tools, so it's worth reviewing the tools that are available to you:
- Email. Email is easy to send, and maintaining mailing lists for users of any given component is pretty easy. Email seems cool by itself until you learn that nobody actually reads email (kind of like that intranet wiki...). I'll cover how to work around this shortly.
- Calendar. Everyone understands calendars. They grew up living with them, the presentation is familiar, and it is based on a concept everyone understands: time.
- Bug/Issue/Ticket systems. These systems are good for tracking work units, such as changes. They tend to have status-setting features including words like "need feedback," "in progress," and "resolved." Seems like a good fit for tracking the progress of a change.
- Phones. Phones are good when you need synchronous communication, such as when coordinating a change across geographics, or calling customers to get acknowledgement of a proposed change.
- Meetings. Meetings are good places to announce changes, scheduling, and impact. Attendees can nod quietly or object to the change or scheduling. This helps you review a change and fit its schedule to minimize risk and impact.
Every change will not need to involve every tool listed above. Further, the tools you use to communicate, plan, and log changes will depend greatly on the culture and size of your company and on the impact and risks of each change. Use the tools that fit best.
For email, have an 'it-changes' or 'ops-changes' or 'yourteamname-changes' mailing list that has your team (which can just be you) and anyone else who is interested in the changes you are making. Additionally, create a mailing list for any component that might need maintenance, such as a datacenter location, a service like Active Directory, or the network filer; document these and encourage people needing a particular component subscribe to those mailing lists. Use your judgement here. If your company is small, you can probably create fewer mailing lists.
Like engineers who need to consider unreliable networks in their design, you must consider unreliable readers in your change announcements. Folks don't read email; they skim and read things they think are important, which means they may skip your change announcement. You may have to resort to trickery in order to get people to read important change announcements; try prefixing your subject with "CAKE AND PIE" - it might work? Further, there is often no feedback from email - you won't get any acknowledgement of who has read an announcement, or more importantly, that they have understood it.
The best way to ensure your announcements are read are by targeting only the people who need the information and by repeating your message. Depending on the size and impact of the change, you may need to send your change announcement up to three times. First, to announce the scheduled change. Second, a day (or hour) before the change starts. Third, when the change starts. A final, "all clear," message should be sent when the maintenace is complete.
Email has some failings, like no acknowledgements. Calendars can do this, and more. Calendars are great visual tools for communicating schedules. Online calendars (in Exchange, Google Calendar, whatever) are great for several reasons. First, you can invite people to the event, which gives them a visual reminder in their calendar. Further, you get reminders for free: Just before the event starts, your invitees will likely get a popup reminding them of an change. Additionally, Calendars are shareable and publishable. Calendar data exchange is pretty standardized - iCalendar format sends well over email. Invitees can acknowledge receipt, helping you figure out who hasn't acknowledged and might need a phone call. Finally, calendars can often be downloaded to smartphones and other devices. All of these are excellent features of modern online calendars which will help you communicate changes more effectively.
You should schedule maintenance and outages in a calendar. Create a calendar (or multiple, using the same principles from the mailing list creation above) to track these events. Invite people and groups who need to know about the event. The data in each event should include two things: a short description (think email subject) and a link to wherever the detailed plan/discussion for the change lives, which is likely an issue/bug system. For an unplanned outage, create an event that represents the actual time and duration of the outage.
Ticket (aka bug or issue) systems should be used to track individual changes. As mentioned above, you get the state-tracking benefits (open, pending, in-progress, fixed, etc) and a reasonable place to record planning notes and actions taken during a change. Your emails and calendar entries should include links to the change ticket if it is relevant. The ticket should also, if possible, include a link to the calendar event for easy import into other calendars.
Phones and meetings are of similar use as they both grant you synchronous communication. Phones and in-person meetings are good for the planning stage. They are also both good for reviewing pending changes or for confirming that all involved acknowledge the change. Your use depends on your needs. For example, a previous job had weekly meetings to discuss impact and scheduling of planned changes. Phone is also a useful tool for calling in more experienced teammates when there's a problem with a change.
Lastly, you are a customer, too. Others will make changes that affect you. Datacenter facilities, ISPs, and other service providers make changes just like you do. I would love if my service providers sent me change notifications with calendar invites, but nobody does. Do your vendors send you change notifications? Do they include calendar data you can import into your own calendars? Do they follow the advice above? If you said no to any of these, it's worth having a chat with your vendors and providers to help work towards this. I'm trying to work with my providers to get them to do this, but it's a slow battle due to the current systems and practices, so be prepared and patient.
Remember, we are often guilty of undercommunicating and even communicating poorly. Focusing on effective communication of changes will help ensure your customers (coworkers, users, clients, etc) are well-informed of the changes that affect them. Informed customers are happy customers. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, you are a customer, too. Making you a happy may require you working with your service providers to sell them on the advice here.Further reading: